Honor Council Constitution
The Honor System was instituted at Rhodes College well before the turn of the century. Throughout the history of the College, emphasis has been placed on a true spirit of honor and integrity. The Honor System, perpetuated by the students of Rhodes themselves, was one of the institutions brought to Memphis, Tennessee, when the College moved in 1925. The Honor Code is the constitutional document which governs and reflects the Honor System itself. The Honor Code has been revised and changed through the years, but the underlying tenets of honor and trust remain unchanged.
The Honor System at Rhodes is a tradition, an inheritance, and an opportunity all in one. It is a tradition because it is and has been a valued possession of Rhodes students since the early days of the College. It is an inheritance because each entering class receives it from the previous class as a gift to be cherished and respected. Above all, it is an opportunity because it allows the fullest possible expression of individual life in harmony with community life.
Within the Honor System, Rhodes students have found a moral ideal by which to guide their actions. This ideal is absolute honesty to oneself and to others in all aspects of life. It is not only a guide for college life; it is also a principle which Rhodes students believe to be fundamental in ethical life, both during and after college.
The objective of the Honor System is the spiritual, moral, and intellectual development of the individual student, which is promoted and encouraged by the freedom and responsibility the student gains by virtue of living within the Honor System. Students are personally responsible for their work, their actions, and their word. Because these actions take place in a larger community, students have a responsibility to that community. Students must protect their freedom by encouraging adherence to the Honor Code and by reporting any violations of which they are aware. In order to preserve an atmosphere of honor and trust at Rhodes, it is necessary for the Honor Council to act upon any cases of dishonesty in connection with academic or campus life. All members of the Rhodes community must fulfill their responsibilities to the Honor System. This process of cooperation is vital to the spiritual, moral, and intellectual development of Rhodes College.
ARTICLE I—PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS
SECTION 1. Purpose
The purpose of the Honor Council shall be to foster a spirit of honor at Rhodes College, and to act upon cases of cheating, stealing, or lying in official matters, or the failure on the part of students to report such violations in connection with academic work or campus life.
The Honor Council’s role at Rhodes College is to maintain a system which is
symbolic of the perpetual commitment of this institution to the values of truth and honesty. The Honor Council recognizes that the Honor System is more than a guide to campus life; it is a guide to ethical life, both during and after college.
SECTION 2. Definitions
- The term “student” includes all persons taking courses at Rhodes College, both fulltime and part-time, pursuing undergraduate or graduate studies. Persons who are not officially enrolled for a particular term but have a continuing relationship with Rhodes College are considered “students.”
- The term “faculty member” means any person hired by Rhodes College to conduct classroom activities.
- The term “Rhodes College official” includes any person employed by Rhodes College, performing assigned administrative or professional responsibilities. Rhodes College officials include, without limitation, administrators, faculty, and campus safety officers; and resident assistants, Honor Council members and Social Regulations Council members when acting in an official capacity.
- The term "member of the Rhodes College community” includes any person who is a student, faculty member, Rhodes College official, or any other person employed by Rhodes College. A person’s status in a particular situation shall be determined by the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council upon consultation with the Honor Council President.
- The term “Rhodes College premises” includes all land, buildings, facilities, and other property in the possession of or owned, used, or controlled by the College (including adjacent streets and sidewalks).
- The term “organization” means any group of persons who have complied with the formal requirements for Rhodes College recognition.
- The term “Honor Council” means the governing body of students elected by the student body of Rhodes College to implement and interpret the Honor Code, including, without limitation, determining whether or not a student has violated the Honor Code.
- The term “pledge” refers to the statement: “As a member of the Rhodes College community, I pledge my full and steadfast support to the Honor System and agree neither to lie, cheat, nor steal, and to report any such violation that I may witness.” Although this pledge may not be written explicitly on a particular assignment, it is implicit in every assignment or activity completed at Rhodes College, as the initial Honor Code signing before the beginning of the student’s first year at Rhodes binds him or her to the Honor System.
- The term “Faculty Appeals Committee” means the group of faculty members authorized by Rhodes College to consider an appeal of the Honor Council’s decision that a student has violated the Honor Code or an appeal of the sanction imposed on a student by the Honor Council.
- The term “Judicial Officer for the Honor Council” means the person designated by the administration of Rhodes College to serve as a liaison from the Honor Council to the administration and to consult with the Honor Council President concerning matters of Honor Council business. The Judicial Officer shall not attend or participate in Honor Council hearings.
- The term “Eligible Voting Member” means a council member serving as a class representative, and who is not serving a special role (including but not limited to investigator, advisor, acting secretary, etc) during the hearing.
- The term “shall” is used in the imperative sense.
- The term “may” is used in the permissive sense.
The term “source” refers to, without limitation, class textbooks, other books, journals, newspapers, magazines, information obtained electronically, and other persons’ work.
ARTICLE II—JUDICIAL AUTHORITY
SECTION 1. Membership
The Honor Council shall consist of seventeen members: two males and two females from the senior, junior, and sophomore classes; one male and one female from the first- year class; the President; and two Secretaries. The Vice President shall be counted as a class representative, the only officer counted as such.
SECTION 2. Elections
The President and Vice President shall be elected by a majority vote of the Honor Council members in the spring semester, prior to the election of class representatives. The meeting during which the election is held shall be presided over by the Judicial Officer of the Honor Council or a designee appointed by the Honor Council. To be eligible for the office of President or Vice President, a candidate must have at least one year of experience as a member of the Honor Council. The rising senior, junior, and sophomore representatives of the Honor Council shall be elected by the members of their class in the spring semester of each year. First- year student representatives shall be elected by their class as soon as possible after the opening of the fall semester of each year. They shall be installed immediately and shall serve until the installation of a new Council in the spring. Representative positions of the Honor Council are open to any member of the student body in good academic and social standing.
SECTION 3. Officers
The officers of the Honor Council are the President, the Vice-President, and two Secretaries.
SECTION 4. President
The President shall decide questions of procedure and interpretations arising under the Constitution, execute decisions of the Council, and represent the Council to the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council. The President’s role in the hearing and in deliberations shall be one of impartial participation, and the President shall not vote.
SECTION 5. Vice-President
The Vice-President shall act in the capacity of President in the absence of the President. Unless acting as President, the Vice President shall be a voting member of the Council. In addition, the Vice President shall preside over business meetings and have authority over committees.
SECTION 6. Secretaries
The two Secretaries, Recording and Corresponding, shall be appointed by the President from the general student body and shall be confirmed by a two-thirds vote of the incoming Council. The Secretaries shall serve on the pre-hearing committee in order to determine if an alleged violation should be taken to a hearing. In addition, the Recording Secretary shall keep records of hearings and meetings, and the Corresponding Secretary shall handle the Council’s official communication to the Accused, Accuser, Witness(es), and Rhodes College administration. The two Secretaries shall not participate in questioning or deliberation and shall not vote during the hearing.
SECTION 7. Transition
The outgoing members of the Council shall continue to exercise the full responsibilities of membership until the incoming Council is installed. In the case that a member of the senior class is brought before the Council after installation, outgoing senior members shall remain as voting members on the Council for that hearing only. Installation includes educational training and a transition pre-hearing and hearing, which are mandatory. During the transition pre-hearing and hearing, new members may participate in questioning and deliberations but shall not vote.
SECTION 8. Vacancies
Vacancies in the Honor Council shall be filled immediately in an election by the student body, and the new member(s) shall serve until the end of the scheduled term. In the case that a position cannot be filled through an election by the student body, the Honor Council has the authority to fill that vacancy. The procedure for filling a vacancy is as follows:
1. The Council shall announce the vacancy and accept applications from those interested students who are eligible for the position.
2. The Council shall review the applications.
3. The Council shall choose a student to fill the vacancy by a majority vote of eligible voting members in a business meeting.
SECTION 9. Removal
Any member of the Honor Council may be removed from his or her position by a three- fourths vote of the eligible voting members of the Council. Conditions warranting removal may include, without limitation, any unexcused absence for a hearing or meeting, violation of the Honor Code or Social Regulations Code, violation of the Oath of Privacy, expressed lack of belief in the Honor System of Rhodes College, or nonsupport of the procedural operations of the Council.
SECTION 10. Hearing Schedule
Ordinarily hearings will be conducted during the semester in which the alleged violation occurs. In the event that convening a hearing prior to the end of the semester is difficult or impossible, the President, after consulting the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council, may exercise one of the following options:
- The President may schedule a hearing prior to the start of the next academic session.
- This includes scheduling a hearing during the academic break when classes are not in session.
- In the event it is difficult or impossible to convene an Honor Council comprised of no less than 4 of the eligible voting members of the Council, or upon occurrence of other extenuating circumstances, a case may be transferred to the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council (or his/her designee) for adjudication, upon consultation with the Honor Council President.
- Cases may be scheduled for a hearing in the following semester at the discretion of the President in consultation with the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council.
ARTICLE III—PROSCRIBED CONDUCT
SECTION 1. Jurisdiction of Rhodes College
Students may be sanctioned for conduct which constitutes a hazard to the health, safety, or well being of members of the College community or which is detrimental to the College’s interest whether such conduct occurs on campus, off campus, or at College-sponsored events. The Judicial Officer, upon consultation with the Honor Council President, shall determine whether cases are within the jurisdiction of Rhodes College Honor Council.
SECTION 2. Violations
The term “lying” in official matters is defined as making an untrue or deceptive statement, making a material omission, or conveying a false impression, with the intent to mislead a Rhodes College official in an official matter or falsifying, altering, or misusing official material with the intent to mislead a Rhodes College official in an official matter. Official matters and material include, without limitation, matters having to do with course work, college administration, faculty, residence hall administration, Campus Safety, Honor Council, or Social Regulations Council. If an accused student has lied in an Honor Council hearing, the Council may use the lie as evidence relating to the Accused’s commitment to the Honor System when determining a sanction.
The term “cheating” is defined as the attempt or act of giving or receiving unauthorized aid from any source on academic course work.
“Cheating” includes plagiarism. Plagiarism is an act of academic dishonesty. A student must not adopt or reproduce ideas, words, or statements of another person without appropriate acknowledgment. A student must give credit to the originality of others and acknowledge an indebtedness whenever he or she does any of the following:
- Quotes another person's actual words, either oral or written.
- Paraphrases another person's actual words, either oral or written.
- Uses another person's idea, opinion, or theory.
- Borrows facts, statistics, or other illustrative material unless the information is common knowledge" i[i]
- It is the student’s responsibility to consult the professor, an Honor Council member, or writing handbooks for procedure for properly acknowledging sources.
- The term “stealing” is defined as the act of intentionally taking, appropriating, or transferring, without right or permission, the property of any individual, organization, or institution, either permanently or temporarily associated with the Rhodes community. The following are examples of what could be considered under the definition of stealing:
- Computer-related technology: Appropriating or obtaining access to files or any other electronically stored information without authorization of the owner of such files or information shall constitute an Honor Code violation.
- Laundry Room Facilities: Stealing items from laundry room facilities shall constitute an Honor Code violation.
- Library: Removal of any material from the Rhodes College library without permission shall constitute an Honor Code violation.
- Refectory: All students not on the board plan must purchase a meal ticket or pay for individual meals in the Refectory. All guests, excluding prospective students registered through the Admissions Office, are required to pay for food in the Refectory, and Rhodes students are responsible for their off-campus guests. Both the act of taking food from the Refectory with the intent of hoarding it for later consumption, and the act of taking dishes or silverware without proper authorization shall be considered Honor Code violations.
E. Intentional failure to report a violation is a violation of the Honor Code, as it undermines the Honor System and the Rhodes Community. Any student having knowledge of an Honor Code violation is obligated to report it to a member of the Honor Council, preferably to the President. The student may approach the accused if he or she so desires, or he or she can simply report it to the Honor Council.
F. Any Honor Code violation committed by a guest of a Rhodes College student, excluding prospective students registered through the Admissions Office, shall be the responsibility of his or her host.
ARTICLE IV—JUDICIAL PROCEDURES
SECTION 1. Investigation and Pre –Hearing
A. Any faculty member, administrator, or student with knowledge of an Honor Code violation shall report it to a member of the Honor Council, preferably the President. The Accuser has the prerogative to approach the Accused student and offer him or her the opportunity to report the alleged violation to the Honor Council. However, if the Accused student fails to report the alleged violation, it is the duty of the person having knowledge of the alleged violation to report it to the Council in a timely manner.
B. Upon receiving a report of a violation, the President of the Honor Council shall appoint a member of the Council to thoroughly investigate the reported violation. The Investigator shall interview the Accuser, any material witnesses, any expert witnesses (such as faculty members who may aid in investigation), and the Accused and shall conduct such other investigations as is warranted by the circumstances.
C. Any Honor Council member involved in the investigation as an Investigator, Witness, or Accuser shall not be allowed to vote or deliberate in the hearing.
D. The pre-hearing committee shall be composed of the Honor Council President, the two Secretaries, and the Investigator. If the President served as the Investigator, then the Vice President shall serve on the pre-hearing committee.
E. The Honor Council President shall call a pre-hearing meeting at which the Investigator shall present all information concerning the alleged violation to the pre-hearing committee. After all the facts have been considered and the committee feels fully acquainted with the situation, the committee, excluding the Investigator, shall decide by a majority vote whether or not a hearing, further investigation, both, or a case dismissal is warranted. Additionally, the pre-hearing committee may decide if the case shall be transferred to another judicial body or the Rhodes College administration.
F. If the pre-hearing committee decides that the evidence is sufficient to warrant a hearing, the President shall set a time of hearing and notify the Accused (as outlined in Article IV, Section 2).
SECTION 2. Hearing Procedures Relating to the Accused
A. The Accused shall be notified in writing that a complaint is to be taken to a formal hearing at least forty-eight hours prior to the hearing. This time period may be waived by the Accused upon concurrence by the President of the Honor Council. In the case of extenuating circumstances, the President may grant an extension.
B. When notice of the hearing is served, the Accused shall receive a charge letter, including the nature of the alleged violation, the name(s) of the individual(s) reporting the alleged violation to the Council, and the time and place of its alleged occurrence. The Accused shall also receive a written list of hearing procedures as outlined in this article.
C. The Accused shall choose an Advisor from the members of the Honor Council, excluding the President, the Vice President when serving as President, the two Secretaries, and the Investigator. If the Accused does not choose an Advisor, the President shall appoint an Advisor for the Accused. The Advisor’s role is limited to informing the Accused concerning Honor Council procedures and answering any questions about those procedures. The Advisor is foremost a member of the Honor Council and does not represent the Accused. The Advisor shall not be present during Council deliberations.
D. The Accused shall be required to meet with the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council prior to the hearing.
E. The Accused shall be allowed to hear all evidence presented in the hearing, but the Accused shall not be present during Council deliberations. The Accused may offer such proof as is relevant and material to any issue coming before the Honor Council for decision in his or her hearing, including, without limitation, the calling of witnesses with relevant knowledge and the questioning of Honor Council witnesses.
F. All participants in the hearing process should keep the matter under consideration confidential. The Accused may make such investigation as he or she requires to state his or her case and may also consult with a chosen faculty member, family members, counselors or his or her attorney.
G. The Council may find the Accused “In Violation” of the Honor Code only upon clear and convincing evidence. “Clear and convincing evidence” is an intermediate standard of proof, greater than “by a preponderance of the evidence,” but less than “beyond a reasonable doubt.”
H. The Accused may be found “In Violation” of the Honor Code only for the violation which is the subject of the hearing.
I. If the Accused fails to participate in the hearing process, the Council may continue with the hearing procedure. In such a case, the Council shall assume a plea of “Not In Violation” on the part of the Accused and shall assume that the Accused presents no defense.
J. In cases in which two or more students are accused of a joint violation, the Council may conduct one hearing for the joint violation but shall arrive at an independent decision for each accused student.
K. If found “In Violation” of the Honor Code, the Accused may call for an appeal of the Council’s decision and/or sanctioning by the members of the Faculty Appeals Committee. The Accused must request the appeal in writing within four days of the decision, and the Accused must indicate or list the specific ground(s) upon which he or she is basing his or her request for an appeal (see Article IV, Section 5, Paragraph (2), for the grounds upon which an appeal may be requested).
SECTION 3. Hearing Procedures
A. The procedures for conducting an Honor Council hearing shall be as follows:
1. The President of the Honor Council shall preside. In the absence of the President, the Vice-President shall preside.
2. The Council must act with complete impartiality. Any Council member who believes that his or her participation in any aspect of the investigation or hearing process constitutes a conflict of interest must report the potential conflict of interest to the Honor Council President, who shall decide whether that member should recuse himself or herself.
3. The hearing shall be taped, and the Recording Secretary shall keep minutes of the proceedings. Deliberations of the Council shall be absolutely private, and no record of the deliberations shall be made.
4. The Accuser, Accused, and the Accused’s advisor may observe all evidence presented during the hearing but shall not be present for Council deliberations. Witnesses may be present at the hearing only to give their own testimony. The Investigator may be present during both the hearing and deliberations, but the Investigator’s participation in deliberations shall be limited to the clarification of facts. No other persons may be present during the hearing. Disruptive behavior on the part of anyone present shall result in immediate and permanent removal from the hearing.
5. The hearing shall be conducted under the Oath of Privacy, and the Accuser, Council members and witnesses shall take the following Oath of Privacy: “On my honor, I agree to respect the sensitive nature of these proceedings by keeping them confidential.”
6. Every person who testifies at the hearing shall take the following Oath of Truth: “On my honor, I do solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, [so help me God].”
7. The Council may call witnesses relevant to the case. The Accused may request additional witnesses with relevant knowledge and present any other relevant evidence. The President shall decide questions concerning the relevance and/or admissibility of witnesses or evidence. The Accused shall not be required to make a statement or answer questions unless he or she wishes to do so.
8. Legal counsel retained by an Accused student or any other person participating in the hearing shall not attend any hearing of the Honor Council. Any advice or assistance requested of legal counsel by a student must be obtained prior to the hearing.
9.The Accused shall be considered "Not in Violation" throughout the course of the hearing unless and until he or she has been found "In Violation" of the Honor Code.
10. The Council's finding of "In Violation" or "Not in Violation" shall be based only on the merits and facts of the case at hand. Any finding of "In Violation" shall be based on clear and convincing evidence.
11. If after all available evidence has been heard and a motion to vote on “In Violation" or "Not in Violation" of the Honor Code has been properly moved and seconded, two-thirds of the members of the Council present at the hearing and entitled to vote may find the Accused “In Violation”. Otherwise, the Accused shall be found “Not in Violation” and the case shall be dismissed.
B. A quorum for an Honor Council hearing shall be determined as follows:
1. Fifty percent (50%) of the eligible voting members shall constitute a quorum for hearing of alleged violations. There must be a minimum of 4 voting members in every hearing. The Honor Council shall render no decision without the presence of a quorum, except as provided under Paragraph (2)(b).
2. If, for any reason, quorum cannot be achieved, the Accused may agree to one of the following options:
a. To have quorum reestablished by the President appointing other students to sit on the Council. The President shall consult the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council before appointment.
b. To postpone the hearing for a reasonable period of time (to be determined at the discretion of the President of the Honor Council and the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council) until quorum of regular Honor Council members can be established.
SECTION 4. Sanctions
A. Sanctioning of an Honor Code violation shall be determined by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council present at the hearing and entitled to vote. Deliberations shall begin with a motion for the sanction of expulsion. If there is no second, or the motion fails to secure a two-thirds majority, deliberations shall continue until an appropriate lesser sanction is approved by a two-thirds majority vote.
B. When determining sanctions for an individual found in violation of the Honor Code, the following criteria shall be considered along with any other factors determined by the Council to be relevant:
1. The Honor Council’s responsibility to ensure the effectiveness of the Honor Code for the Rhodes College community.
2. The nature and severity of the offense.
3. The ability of the Accused to reenter campus life under the Honor System.
4. A determination, by clear and convincing evidence, that the Accused has lied during the investigation or hearing processes.
5. The level of cooperation of the Accused during the investigation or hearing processes.
6. The probationary status, previous discipline, or any past suspensions of the Accused. These shall be considered only when determining sanctions. The probationary status or any past suspensions of the Accused should cast extreme doubt on the ability of the Accused to reenter campus life under the Rhodes College Honor System.
C. The following sanctions may be imposed upon any student found to have violated the Honor Code:
1. Probation: A written notification for violation of specified regulations. Probation is for a designated period of time and includes the probability of more severe disciplinary sanctions if the student is found to violate the Honor Code during the probationary period.
2. Academic recommendations: Including but not limited to failure in the related course or on the related assignment
3. Loss of Privileges: Denial of specified privileges for a designated period of time.
4. Restitution: Compensation for loss, damage, or injury. This may take the form of appropriate service and/or monetary or material replacement.
5. Educational or work assignments: Service to the college, referral to counseling, or other related discretionary assignments. Such assignments shall be approved by the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council.
6. Residence Hall Suspension: Separation of the student from the residence halls for a definite period of time, after which the student is eligible to return. Conditions for readmission may be specified.
7. Residence Hall Expulsion: Permanent separation of the student from the residence halls.
8. College Suspension: Separation of the student from Rhodes College for one, two or three semesters, after which the student is eligible to return. If the violation is an academic matter, the student shall receive an “F” in the particular class(es) related to the offense and may receive a “W” in all other classes.
9. College Expulsion: Permanent separation of the student from Rhodes College. If the violation is an academic matter, the student shall receive an “F” in the particular class(es) related to the offense and may receive a “W” in all other classes.
D. More than one of the sanctions listed above may be imposed for any single violation.
E. Failure to adhere to any sanction imposed may result in the individual being brought back before the Honor Council for consideration of further sanctions.
Disciplinary Sanctions shall not be made part of the student’s permanent academic record but shall become part of the student’s confidential record.
Each year, the Secretaries shall post a list of charges and Council decisions with names omitted.
SECTION 5. Appeals
A. A decision reached by the Honor Council or a sanction imposed by the Council may be appealed by the Accused or two or more Honor Council members to the Faculty Appeals Committee. The appeal must be requested in writing within four days of the decision. The appellant(s) must indicate or list the specific grounds upon which he or she is basing his or her request.
B. Except for the limited purpose of hearing new evidence pursuant to (4) below, an appeal shall be limited to review of the verbatim record of the initial hearing and supporting documents for one or more of the following purposes:
1. To determine whether the original hearing was conducted fairly in light of the charge and evidence presented, and in conformity with prescribed procedures providing the Accuser a reasonable opportunity to prepare and present evidence that the Honor Code was violated, and providing the Accused student a reasonable opportunity to prepare and to present a rebuttal of those allegations.
2. To determine whether the decision reached regarding the Accused student was based on clear and convincing evidence; that is, whether the evidence presented was sufficient to establish that a violation of the Code occurred.
3. To determine whether the sanction(s) imposed were appropriate for the violation.
4. To consider new and relevant evidence and facts, sufficient to alter a decision, but only where such evidence and facts were not known or available to the appellant at the time of the original hearing.
C. At an appeal hearing by the Faculty Appeals Committee, the following people may be present: the President of the Honor Council, an Honor Council representative chosen by the President, the Accused, the Advisor to the Accused, the Honor Council appellants (in the case that the Accused is not the appellant) and the Judicial Officer for the Honor Council. If the Accused chooses not to testify at the appeal hearing, he or she may send a written statement of his or her testimony.
D. The Chair of the Faculty Appeals Committee, or his or her designee, shall preside and decide all questions relating to conduct of the proceedings including, without limitation, the admissibility of evidence. The Faculty Appeals Committee shall then retire to deliberate in closed session. The Faculty Appeals Committee shall either sustain the decision of the Honor Council or return the case to the Honor Council for reconsideration with remarks and suggestions.
SECTION 6. Reconsideration of Council’s Decision
If a case is returned to the Honor Council by the Faculty Appeals Committee, the Honor Council shall reconsider the case as soon as practical after the notification of its return. A quorum for reconsideration shall consist of at least three- fourths of the voting members present at the original hearing. During a reconsideration, the Honor Council shall consider the remarks and suggestions of the Faculty Appeals Committee, recall any witnesses or the Accused if deemed necessary for the clarification of facts, and either sustain the original decision and/or sanction or render a new decision and/or sanction based on the procedures outlined in Article IV. A reconsideration of the sanction(s) imposed may not result in a more severe sanction for the Accused student. The second decision of the Honor Council shall be final.
ARTICLE V—INTERPRETATION AND REVISION
The Honor Council may, by a two-thirds vote of its membership, adopt new rules and/or amend its Standing Rules. Consistent with the Constitution, the Standing Rules are the procedures the Council deems necessary to ensure the effective execution of its duties.
This Constitution may be amended by the following procedure:
1. Proposed amendments must be approved by two-thirds vote of the entire membership of the Honor Council and by the President of Rhodes College.
2. Proposed amendments shall be publicly announced at least seven days prior to the referendum.
3. To be adopted, amendments must be approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the student body voting in a referendum called for that purpose.
4. Amendments shall become effective at the opening of the first academic year following the referendum.
1 Indiana University. “IU Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct.” Part 3. 4 May
1990 (Amended 1993 and 1996).